From Sun Tzu to Xbox by Ed Halter
-reviewed for GamePolitics by Jeff McHale
Ed Halter, frequent contributor to The Village Voice, explores the relationship between war and games – not just video games – in his 334 page tome, From Sun Tzu to Xbox. Although somewhat ponderous in style, the book fits squarely into the realm of game-related history texts and deserves a place on the politically-aware gamer’s bookshelf.
Halter starts by researching ancient games, such as chess, the Chinese Go, the Egyptian Senet or the Greek Petteia. Interestingly enough, skill at these games was held in high regard, much as professional athletes players are admired in today’s sports-oriented culture. And like sports, these ancient games were viewed as outlets for aggressive and competitive urges. In a time when one-man rule was common, such pastimes provided an outlet for such emotions without sparking a real war.
By the time of Napoleon, medieval chess had in some ways begun to resemble the complexity of today’s real-time strategy games. Complete with Warhammer-like figures, Napoleonic war games tried for realism by simulating actual troop movement rates, ballistics and terrain. Some games required so many mathematical computations to randomize battle results that an early version of the modern game master was needed. This overseeing function is remarkably similar to the role played by CPU in today’s strategy games.
Those who follow the political hurly burly on GamePolitics may be surprised to learn that game controversies are nothing new. In every era, people worried that strategy games glamorized war by abstracting the real-life negative consequences. Some were concerned that military games and toys were harmful to children and would encourage violence. Others attacked games as childish, harmful or time wasters. Halter finds these issues to be generational in nature, and eerily similar to the concerns echoed by modern critics.
Such is the hidden brilliance of From Sun Tzu to Xbox. By remaining historically accurate, Halter paints the current struggle against video games as a generational fight. Nor does the author make light of anti-game arguments posed by critics. Halter relates both sides of the issue and cites research supporting the opposing positions. This objectivity enhances the book’s credibility. Despite the author’s background covering games, his work can’t be simply written off as a pro-video game propaganda piece.
Halter also provides a subtle view of the history and relationship between real war and games simulating war. He explains how some games grew out of the necessity to train soldiers. Of particular interest to gamers, he notes that video games were first created on computers that were entirely funded the military. It’s clear that video games, the military, and war have more common roots than most gamers would suspect. America’s Army, the U.S. military’s mainstream recruiting game, portrays this kinship in sharp relief.
Halter spends some effort detailing the idea of a virtual war between Islam and the West. This modern militaristic game play constitutes an odd dialogue of sorts between those who don’t speak the same language or share the same religion, and whose governments are either at odds, or trading lead.
The bottom line? The plethora of facts, details, history and anecdotes from influential figures – both gamers and military – provide enough substance to make From Sun Tzu to Xbox worth a second look.
Reviewing from the foxhole that only exists in my head, Jeff McHale a.k.a. ~the1jeffy