Research: Violent Games Correlate with Hurting Others, Prosocial Games Correlate with Helping

June 17, 2009 -

A report published in the current issue of Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin maintains that playing pro-social games increases helping behavior by participants while playing violent games increases hurtful behavior.

GamePolitics has previously reported on the research, which combines the results from three separate studies conducted in the U.S., Japan and Singapore. But a press release issued today by the University of Michigan offers new insight about the methodologies used by the researchers involved. These include UM's own Brad Bushman (left) and Roland Huesmann as well as Douglas Gentile of Iowa State. Said Bushman:

These studies show the same kind of impact on three different age groups from three very different cultures. In addition, the studies use different analytic approaches---correlational, longitudinal and experimental. The resulting triangulation of evidence provides the strongest possible proof that the findings are both valid and generalizable...

 

[The research] suggests there is an upward spiral of prosocial gaming and helpful behavior, in contrast to the downward spiral that occurs with violent video gaming and aggressive behavior...

 

Taken together, these findings make it clear that playing video games is not in itself good or bad for children. The type of content in the game has a bigger impact than the overall amount of time spent playing.

Perhaps the most interesting experiment involved 161 U.S. college students. From the press release: 

After playing either a prosocial, violent, or neutral game, participants were asked to assign puzzles to a randomly selected partner. They could choose from puzzles that were easy, medium or hard to complete. Their partner could win $10 if they solved all the puzzles. Those who played a prosocial game were considerably more helpful than others, assigning more easy puzzles to their partners.  And those who had played violent games were significantly more likely to assign the hardest puzzles.

Bushman discusses the study in this brief video.

VG Researcher has additional info...

UPDATE: Here is the UM press release.


Comments

Re: Research: Violent Games Correlate with Hurting Others, ...

*double* 

Re: Research: Violent Games Correlate with Hurting Others, ...

More Craig Anderson cronies finding out that media is bad for you.  Big surprize...

Whenever any of these studies come out the first thing someone should do is see if the authors are in bed with Anderson. If so, they should be ignored.

 

 

 

http://www.popularculturegaming.com

Re: Research: Violent Games Correlate with Hurting Others, ...

What games?  What games were they?

Why do they never say what the games were? There IS a reason.

Re: Research: Violent Games Correlate with Hurting Others, ...

They did say, it's just that for some reason GP didn't think it was important enough to relay to us.

--------------------------------------------------

I LIKE the fence. I get 2 groups to laugh at then.

-------------------------------------------------- I LIKE the fence. I get 2 groups to laugh at then.

Re: Research: Violent Games Correlate with Hurting Others, ...

Really? Then what were they? Isn't this a critical point? What if they're calling Pac Man a violent game?

Re: Research: Violent Games Correlate with Hurting Others, ...


They pretty much do just that. The violent games were Ty 2 and Crash Twinsanity, both rated E.

Re: Research: Violent Games Correlate with Hurting Others, ...

Perhaps I'm just being daft but I can't see how the puzzle thing is even anywhere close to showing that violent games correlate with hurting others... giving your mate a Rubik's cube is a long way from stabbing him in the kidneys

All these studies seem to show is that assholes find violent games more appealing... 10 minutes on random matches in most FPS's will tell you that.

Re: Research: Violent Games Correlate with Hurting Others, ...

So let me get this strait, games considered "social" lead to positive construtive behavior. Where as on the other end of the spectrum, violent games lead to negative behavior. Is it me or is this like that internet test for game addiction, where every thing is just fucked up?

 

We don't need the government, all we need is Medicare, Medicade, and Social Security!

We don't need the government, all we need is Medicare, Medicade, and Social Security!

Re: Research: Violent Games Correlate with Hurting Others, ...

This is another example of how ridiculously flawed and contrived these studies are. This says NOTHING about someone becoming more predisposed to violently attack another person after playing a violent game. I would scour sites like Common Sense Media and others and see if they report on this. If they do, post in the comments section if they have one, and be sure to point this out.

To reiterate: This study would say the same thing regardless of what media was in question. This is not a threat to video games nor gamers. This does not add to a social stigma. The same findings in this study could be replicated for movies, books, television, and possibly fast cars.

You're right, this study itself does not add a social stigma. The problem is, politicians and advocacy groups will spin it and dwell on it without focusing on the specific problems. When this happens, the average parent will drink the Kool-Aid and hop on the "video games will turn my kid into a cop-killing degenerate" bandwagon. Our job is to point out the folly of this take so they will dismiss studies like these out of hand.

Re: Research: Violent Games Correlate with Hurting Others, ...

"After playing either a prosocial, violent, or neutral game, participants were asked to assign puzzles to a randomly selected partner. They could choose from puzzles that were easy, medium or hard to complete. Their partner could win $10 if they solved all the puzzles. Those who played a prosocial game were considerably more helpful than others, assigning more easy puzzles to their partners.  And those who had played violent games were significantly more likely to assign the hardest puzzles."

 

What I took out of this is those that played violent games believed in their partners ability to solve a challenging problem and therefore assigned them harder puzzles. Those that played prosocial games secretly believed that their partners were to stupid to solve a harder problem and therefore assigned them an easier puzzle.

~Weatherlight~

~Weatherlight~

Re: Research: Violent Games Correlate with Hurting Others, ...

Everyone say it with me now:

CORRELATION DOES NOT EQUAL CAUSATION

Re: Research: Violent Games Correlate with Hurting Others, ...

All of these studies have a fundamental flaw: they are not playing the same game for violent and non-violent. I'd like to see a study done where the game is the same, but a non-violent version given to one group and a violent given to another.

Re: Research: Violent Games Correlate with Hurting Others, ...

Also, make sure the violent versions aren't rated E. At least put a token effort into pretending your result says something about violence in video games.

Re: Research: Violent Games Correlate with Hurting Others, ...

Immersion in anti-social 'bad, violent' behavior increases anti social behavior. Dropping a nun into gangland and leaving her there for a few years would make her respond to her surroundings and alter her behavior from what it was previously.

Immersion in pro-social behavior 'good, helpful' would increase pro-social behavior. Dropping a prostitute into a (whatever it's called, female version of a monastery) would shape the prostitute's behavior.

^---Above are indisputably true. It's a survival mechanism. Below is my extrapolation/synthesis based on this. ----V

Video games have this effect to a lesser degree. Every person could be made a dot on a social spectrum, the examples I gave are major movement towards either end of the spectrum relative to who the person is (where they are on the spectrum). Willingness to change also plays a part in it. The nun may not be willing to turn into a gangster and shoot at people, but she will definitely start locking her doors and windows.

Types of video games are like types of people. Some could be as polarized as hookers to nuns. Others could just 'dress risque', or 'volunteer at a homeless shelther every weekend'. Every single thing we expose ourselves to can influence us. We have to make a conscious effort to not allow this influence into our lives.

So what does this study really caution us about? Well, video games do influence us. People on the edge of major anti-social behavior (to understate it, LOL) may be pushed over the edge, though this could be done by any media or any other person in their lives. People on the edge of major pro-social behavior could be pushed over that edge too. Regardless, the effects are definitely temporary, and if the study was done once, then the groups in question switched around, it would show that. (Other studies have).

So this really reinforces the need for a ratings system and the exclusion of ridiculous amounts of violence and 'anti social behavior' from our video games. (Ridiculous being the japanese rape game mixed with manhunt 2 uncensored.)

 

I don't know why other people on here are getting so defensive over this. Nothing in life is as sterile as our language and science would like it to be. Getting stubborn over something that affirms human nature and human psyche says we have something to hide or feel guilty.

To reiterate: This study would say the same thing regardless of what media was in question. This is not a threat to video games nor gamers. This does not add to a social stigma. The same findings in this study could be replicated for movies, books, television, and possibly fast cars.

Re: Research: Violent Games Correlate with Hurting Others, ...

I don't know why other people on here are getting so defensive over this.

Because the violent games used in this study are rated E by the ESRB, ages 3 and older by PEGI. That's why.

Re: Research: Violent Games Correlate with Hurting Others, ...

Sigh.  Have to wonder how much time (and money) was spent on doing the research.  

Still I would offer a small amendment. 

Playing games correlates to relaxation much in the way reading a book or watching TV does.  Joining a gang, running over living things with your vehicles (in purpose) or just being rude (and often stupid goes hand in hand there) correlate to violence/hurting others. 

Tell me oh great and wise one /sarcasm.  If I am playing say Oblivion which is a single player game involving the killing of things and saving the empire.  In the privacy of my residence how does that correlate to Hurting anyone?  

Gods below.  Basically what you are implying is that Nice is puppies and butterflies (and things you like),  and Ugly is war/weapons (and things you dont like).  Think this is going to stop war or even stop the kicking of puppies? 

As for the bit with puzzles, please.  Tell me if someone is picked on in school but is not a gamer do you think they would give out the easy puzzles?  Whereas if I was popular, liked or even in a good mood (gamer of not) I would want to see them win so would give the easier challenge.  Its Much more about social conditions and a persons feelings/beliefs than games (odd that this study did not mention movies, TV, books or other forms of stimulas)

I agree with the posts above that call this study yet another waste of time.  It just another attempt to grab a fleeting moment of fame. 

Re: Research: Violent Games Correlate with Hurting Others, ...

Just another study that tries to pass itself off as science. I really do need to get myself a research grant because I could do a study like that for $50. And then use the rest to buy more game XP

Re: Research: Violent Games Correlate with Hurting Others, ...

It sounds like they are less talking about violent/non-violent games and more about cooperative/compeditive games, and then testing to see if the person is feeling cooperative or compeditive.

So I call 'misleading' at best.

Re: Research: Violent Games Correlate with Hurting Others, ...

..."upward spiral of prosocial gaming and helpful behavior, in contrast to the downward spiral..."

Why does everything have to spiral?  Can't things ever just move in a straight line?

Re: Research: Violent Games Correlate with Hurting Others, ...

Because its sounds cooler of course!

~Weatherlight~

~Weatherlight~

Re: Research: Violent Games Correlate with Hurting Others, ...

Not if you want continued funding to research how far the 'spiral' goes. Beats a proper job I suppose.

--------------------------------------------------

I LIKE the fence. I get 2 groups to laugh at then.

-------------------------------------------------- I LIKE the fence. I get 2 groups to laugh at then.

Re: Research: Violent Games Correlate with Hurting Others, ...

The immediate question that comes to mind is how much time passed between the gaming and the puzzles. Short-term effects are one thing, but it's the long-term that seem to me to be of more concern.

Re: Research: Violent Games Correlate with Hurting Others, ...

This study is full of fail. How do these people do it?

 

Re: Research: Violent Games Correlate with Hurting Others, ...

But: games containing violence tend to be the more challenging, being as they are putting the player *against* a force while "pro-social" games tend to be less challenge-centric, being as they are problems waiting to be solved with the minimum of fuss.

So: people that like challenging games like challenging puzzles, and people who like non-challenging games like non-challenging puzzles. Well done, Science!

/b

Re: Research: Violent Games Correlate with Hurting Others, ...

Well what a surprise, another instance of somebody not reading more about the study.

Super Mario Sunshine and Chibi-Robo were the 'pro-social' games. Some pinball game and Super Monkey Ball were the neutral games, and Ty the Tasmanian Tiger and Crash Twinsanity were the 'violent' games.

I'd say the difficulty level among those games is pretty low across the board. They definitely weren't playing COD4 on Veteran here.

And even if they did use significantly more difficult games for the violent group it would not have had any obvious effect on the study. The participants didn't get to choose what games they played, so them preferring challenging games is not relevant to what game they played. 

Re: Research: Violent Games Correlate with Hurting Others, ...

Those were only the games for the third part of the study. They weren't for the whole study.

Also... I don't see much of a difference between all these games. I fail to see how SMS is more 'pro-social' than Super Monkey Ball or Crash.

Re: Research: Violent Games Correlate with Hurting Others, ...

Agreed completely. It seems the researchers didn't want to use anything not rated "E" for their research. I would have done something like this:

Animal Crossing - Social

Smash Bros - Neutral (social, but with violence)

Metroid Prime - Anti-Social.

Yes, they're, all Nintendo games, but those were the best examples I could think of of games that wouldn't be rated "M". Surely all of the kids tested would be over 13, or at least old enough that nobody would care otherwise.

Re: Research: Violent Games Correlate with Hurting Others, ...

>Super Mario Sunshine and Chibi-Robo were the 'pro-social' games. Some pinball game and Super Monkey Ball were the neutral games, and Ty the Tasmanian Tiger and Crash Twinsanity were the 'violent' games

Having read more about the study, I was aware of this, thank you very much.

SMS and Chibi-Robo are, for the most part, games where you take a character and ply him against a largely static environment in order to attain some objective.

Ty and Crash are, for the most part, games where you take a character who must break through a series of attackers in order to reach some location.

Ty and Crash *actively attempt* to prevent you from reaching your goal, whereas SMS and Chibi leave you be, or at best give you parameters to do it in. By definition, these are two different types of challenge, two types frequently identified by people who deal with difficulty levels, covering everything from games designers to crossword compilers to teachers.

Before you ask, yes, I am aware that this is a gross simplification of all four games- but it's no more of a simplification than the people running the study used.

You give a group a type of game that contains one kind of challenge, and they will naturally gravitate towards similar.

>The participants didn't get to choose what games they played, so them preferring challenging games is not relevant to what game they played. 

If it isn't, then the whole study is invalid.

If you're going to suggest a link between people that play one type of game preferring one type of puzzle, then if you want to carry that outside the laboraory, then you have to accept that that preference is an important factor.

Another important thing, however, is that this test shows people moving from one game (SMS and Crash) to another (puzzles) for an inconsequential effect (someone either gets or doesn't get $10 they didn't have half an hour ago). An identical number of people playing identical games given the real-world choice between helping somebody dangling off the edge of a cliff up and shooting a random person dead- In Real Life- would probably give a different result.

To that extent, the only thing that this study tells us is that people who like one kind of game, like one kind of game.

You know, like I said in the first place.

/b

Re: Research: Violent Games Correlate with Hurting Others, ...

I'm not agreeing with the findings of the study, I'm sorry if that's how it came across.

From what I understood the point of this section of the study was to have participants play a game that was determined by the study to be pro-social, neutral, or violent/anti-social. The participants would then go on to choose puzzles for their partner that ranged in difficulty.

Their findings were that people who did the puzzle thing after playing an anti-social game were more likely to choose a difficult puzzel, and the opposite happened for participants who played more pro-social games.

For this to be a valid study, you can't allow the participants to control what games they are playing. I think you are thinking of this as a long-term study instead of a short-term study. They wanted to determine if simply playing an anti-social game was enough to make the participant choose the more difficult puzzles (regardless of what their gaming background or preferences were). If they allowed them to choose their own games that would throw the whole study off.

Not to mention if they were going by preference why even have them play the game at all? You could simply ask them what games they prefer to play.

Re: Research: Violent Games Correlate with Hurting Others, ...

They weren't playing COD4 AT ALL. And that is kind of the point.

--------------------------------------------------

I LIKE the fence. I get 2 groups to laugh at then.

-------------------------------------------------- I LIKE the fence. I get 2 groups to laugh at then.

Re: Research: Violent Games Correlate with Hurting Others, ...

Uh yeah, I know. I thought I made that pretty clear when I listed what games they played.

I was comparing the games they played to what I would consider an actually difficult game. 

Re: Research: Violent Games Correlate with Hurting Others, ...

....Why do I not trust these test results?

---

I once had a dream about God. In it, he was looking down upon the planet and the havoc we recked and he said unto us, "Damn Kids get off my lawn!"

I once had a dream about God. In it, he was looking down upon the planet and the havoc we recked and he said unto us, "Damn Kids get off my lawn!"

Re: Research: Violent Games Correlate with Hurting Others, ...

 People need to realize that he did say CORRELATES. That means that they are not the cause. It's like saying there's a correlation between people who live in the country and having a pick up truck. People living in the country tend to have them more than people living in the city for obvious reasons.

That doesn't mean that having a pick up truck makes you live in the country (or vice versa), or that you can't have a normal car in the country, or that people in the city don't have pick up trucks.

which is what this study is saying, and I'm glad they're saying correlation because that's all it is.

That said, this study is entirely pointless, just as pointless as a study pointing out the correlation between country livers and truck owners would be.

Oh well. 

Re: Research: Violent Games Correlate with Hurting Others, ...

Another pointless study just this one tries to place an emphasis around how hand outs are good and pro social and working for something is wrong and evil (i.e. easy problems for ten dollars instead of hard problems for ten dollars; and yes I might be pissed if I didn't get the ten dollars because of a hard problem but I would even be a bigger dick rubbing it in everyones face if I did all hard problems and did get the ten dollars)

 

Re: Research: Violent Games Correlate with Hurting Others, ...

My main issue with these studies is they aren't really realistic as to playing habits.  they only measure how you are after playing one game for a set amount of time

If i was forced to play Silent Hill and Resident Evil (old or new school) for a set length of time, and play nothing else, i'd be a wreck.  I stop and play lighter games like FFX, World of Warcraft. Or in one intersting weekend i'd swith between the original Silent Hill and Harvest Moon.

and by "wreck" i mean stressed, my hand condition would be huge (any type of stress/anxiety like those found in a good tense survival horror cause my hands end up negating the rumble feature they shake so bad), and probably not the most smiley i've ever been.

Not the "i'm crazy and going to lash out violently at someone" kind of wrecked, i know my limits and quite when i've had enough, that's the key.

Re: Research: Violent Games Correlate with Hurting Others, ...

Silent Hill and Harvest Moon.  That must lead to some interesting dreams.

I must harvest radishes.  They're the only thing that can protect me from pyramid head!

Re: Research: Violent Games Correlate with Hurting Others, ...

God that would be horrible, non stop farming in order to avoid being eaten.  Wait actually that sounds like a good game ... it could have a Cannibal twist feed your neighbors or they turn into Zombies and eat you.

Re: Research: Violent Games Correlate with Hurting Others, ...

There is already a game called Plants vs Zombies. You raise a garden to fend off the Zombie invasion. I hear it is quite good.

E. Zachary Knight
Oklahoma City Chapter of the ECA
http://www.theeca.com/chapters_oklahoma

Re: Research: Violent Games Correlate with Hurting Others, ...

Do you think it took the difficulty of the game into account? I'd probably be more likely to assign a difficult puzzle after playing a difficult non-violent game than an easy violent one.


If you go crazy then I will still call you Superman.

Re: Research: Violent Games Correlate with Hurting Others, ...

And how do pro-social team-based violent games fit in? Such as Counter-Strike, Team Fortress 2 or other team-based shooters? Or did they just decide to mark them as irrelevent?

--------------------------------------------------

I LIKE the fence. I get 2 groups to laugh at then.

-------------------------------------------------- I LIKE the fence. I get 2 groups to laugh at then.

Re: Research: Violent Games Correlate with Hurting Others, ...

Counter-Strike, TF2 or other shooters are not pro-social team-based violent games. Actually, what you're saying is oxymoronic.

A prosocial game is defined (IMO and see the games used in the study) are actions intended to help others. Healing others is prosocial, fragging a sniper to protect your medic is not prosocial, it's what I call instrumental aggression: committing aggressive acts in order to achieve a goal.

 

http://vgresearcher.wordpress.com/

Re: Research: Violent Games Correlate with Hurting Others, ...

I'm sorry if I make it seem that fragging opponents to keep your team mates alive is antisocial. In no way that I said it's anti-social. It's not anti-social, nor is it prosocial. It's in between.

Let me explain, I mentioned in my first comment that killing others to protect your team mates as instrumental aggression which means "A form of aggression against another person in which the aggression is used as a means of securing some reward or to achieve an external goal such as a victory. Unlike hostile aggression, harm to others is incidental and is not the perceived goal." Whereas prosocial is defined as "behaviours intended to help others' well being".

So, the in-game behaviour in question is prosocial, but at the same time, aggressive. I see that instrumental aggression as a more accurate term in describing this in-game behaviour since you're helping the medic in order to achieve a goal, say capturing the enemy's briefcase. Whereas if it's for prosocial, then you care for the medic's health and not really for the briefcase. So that's the reasons why I chose using the term 'intrumental aggression' over 'prosocial'.

We have to be aware of the differences in the definition used by social scientists and the public. Social scientists are stricter in defining terms than the public.

http://vgresearcher.wordpress.com/

Re: Research: Violent Games Correlate with Hurting Others, ...

You're still contradicting yourself. Killing someone to prevent them from killing a team-mate would most definitely be behaviour intended to help the team-mates well being.

--------------------------------------------------

I LIKE the fence. I get 2 groups to laugh at then.

-------------------------------------------------- I LIKE the fence. I get 2 groups to laugh at then.

Re: Research: Violent Games Correlate with Hurting Others, ...

Healing a team-mate is social, killing so your team-mate doesn't die is anti-social? Remind to never play on your team. 

And you seem to conveniently forget medics always pack a gun too.

--------------------------------------------------

I LIKE the fence. I get 2 groups to laugh at then.

-------------------------------------------------- I LIKE the fence. I get 2 groups to laugh at then.

Re: Research: Violent Games Correlate with Hurting Others, ...

Maybe he's one of those types of players that complain about others kill-stealing, thus making them "anti-social" in his view.

GameSnooper

Re: Research: Violent Games Correlate with Hurting Others, ...

First you say that pro-social is helping others.  But then you say that helping your medic live by killing a sniper isn't pro-social.  So which is it?  And for those who think that a violent game can't be pro-social, play Left 4 Dead.  If you are anti-social in that game you will lose.

-Ultimately what will do in mankind is a person's fear of their own freedom-

Re: Research: Violent Games Correlate with Hurting Others, ...

I have to agree.  Let's not forget forget the team work of Heavy and Medic.  Being Anti-Social is like being the blue spy in the red base.  He ain't talking to anyone over there.

and even games where it's a free-for-all, there are still social things going on as well.  It's called having a mic!

Re: Research: Violent Games Correlate with Hurting Others, ...

I´ll be surprised if they didn´t used just Wii Music as pro-social game...

The cynical side of videogames (spanish only): http://thelostlevel.blogspot.com/ My DeviantArt Page (aka DeviantCensorship): http://www.darkknightstrikes.deviantart.com/

 
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