Research: Competitive Games Cause More Aggression Than Violent Games

August 29, 2011 -

Some early research from Brock University in Canada seems to indicate that playing highly competitive video games may lead to aggressive behavior faster than playing games with more violent content. Competitiveness, says a new study published by the American Psychological Association, may be "the main video game characteristic" that influences or causes aggression.

In a series of experiments lead by Paul J.C. Adachi, M.A., a PhD candidate at Brock University in Canada, video games were matched on "competitiveness, difficulty, and pace of action." Researchers found that video game violence did not elevate aggressive behavior on its own. The more competitive games produced "greater levels of aggressive behavior" than less competitive games, no matter how much violent content was found in the games.

In one of the experiments, Adachi selected 42 college students (25 men and 17 women) to play one of two video games, Conan or Fuel, for 12 minutes. Both games were even when it came to competitiveness, difficulty and pace of action, but differed in levels of violence. After participants finished playing the game, they were then told they were going to take part in a separate food tasting study. Participants had to make up a cup of hot sauce for a "taster" who they were told did not particularly like hot or spicy food. The participants could choose from one of four different hot sauces (from least hot to most hot) for the taster to drink. The authors found that there was no significant difference in the intensity and amount of the hot sauces prepared by the participants who played "Conan" and those who played "Fuel." The authors concluded that video game violence alone was not sufficient to elevate aggressive behavior.

In the second experiment, Adachi had 60 college students (32 men and 28 women) play one of four video games: Mortal Kombat versus DC Universe, Left 4 Dead 2, Marble Blast Ultra, and Fuel. Afterward, the students completed the same hot sauce test from the first study. Electrocardiograms measured the participants' heart rates before and during video game play. On average, students who played the "highly competitive games" - Fuel and Mortal Kombat versus DC Universe - concocted what researchers called "significantly more of a hotter sauce" than participants who played Marble Blast Ultra and Left 4 Dead 2. They also had significantly higher heart rates.

"These findings suggest that the level of competitiveness in video games is an important factor in the relation between video games and aggressive behavior, with highly competitive games leading to greater elevations in aggression than less competitive games," wrote Adachi.

The full text of the study, "The Effect of Video Game Competition and Violence on Aggressive Behavior: Which Characteristic Has the Greatest Influence?," can be found here here (PDF).


Comments

Re: Research: Competitive Games Cause More Aggression Than ...

Football is a real life competitive sport and I have yet to see any videogame perpetuate aggression as much as it does.  Whether it be aggression against others and/or aggression in retaliation.

------- Morality has always been in decline. As you get older, you notice it. When you were younger, you enjoyed it.

Re: Research: Competitive Games Cause More Aggression Than ...

Thats because you never actually paid attention to the players.They have a reputation for being bullies for a reason.

Re: Research: Competitive Games Cause More Aggression Than ...

See, THESE studies sound fascinating. The games/violence to aggression studies always seem a little biased in their approach, but this one seems to be trying to separate the myth and reality rather objectively. Time will tell, but these results make sense to me up front.

With that in mind, I'd LOVE to see this done more comprehensively. Larger sample of people from different backgrounds (economic backgrounds, ages, ethnicities, gamers and non gamers), across a wider selection of games in tightly controlled conditions.

For example; I'd like to see how something like, say, Minecraft measures when played on Peaceful, on Normal, and online in a moderated server and an unmoderated one. And I'd like them to measure more than just aggression, but try to see what other traits might be invoked by gaming and content under different circumstances.

Ultimately, if enough data could be collected, we might be able to use this to create a predictive model -- get a better sense of what kinds of play, mechanics and flavor produce which kinds of behavior and promote which kinds of growth and development. It might even have a drastic, OBJECTIVE impact on things like the ESRB -- ratings could be altered based on the known responses made by specific constructions of games.

Obviously, this sort of understanding is years away at best, and requires a few large, expensive studies to produce, but I think there's some fascinating information there that could be very useful in many applications.

Re: Research: Competitive Games Cause More Aggression Than ...

I agree. The study is well thought out with few assumptions not supported by the results. It still has a long way to go though, and I hope this student continues this line of research when they get their PHD.

 

I have a suggestion for the next one, comparing L4D ragers to the blue shell effect. I guarantee having your win taken away on the last lap will result in much more aggressive behavior than just having a team member run off the roof as the tank.

-Austin from Oregon

Feel free to check out my blog.

Re: Research: Competitive Games Cause More Aggression Than ...

If they were playing MKvDCU and going against Superman, then yeah- they're going to be super-pissed when he does his game-hacking breathing move. :P

 
Forgot your password?
Username :
Password :

Poll

Which group is more ethically challenged?:

Shout box

You're not permitted to post shouts.
Andrew EisenThat was quick! Pretty accurate cosplay of the new Ghostbuster uniform and proton pack: https://twitter.com/mirabellemusing/status/61673135125394227207/03/2015 - 6:23pm
Matthew Wilson@mast I dont know, but I do know it got a cult fallowing here.07/03/2015 - 6:22pm
MastermuneWasn't the Zero Escape series more popular here than in Japan?07/03/2015 - 6:19pm
Matthew Wilson@mast given the game was revealed in the US, I wouldnt be shocked if it was released at the same time.07/03/2015 - 6:15pm
MastermuneI don't trust the big AAA worldwide simultaneous releases though.07/03/2015 - 5:57pm
Mastermune@Infophile I have come to the conclusion that smaller games like zero escape, JRPG's and the like are actually worth preordering sinc they are limited quantities and since they usually release in japan first we know if there are any issues.07/03/2015 - 5:56pm
Infophile@Matthew! Awesome news. I'd preorder on that shout alone if I didn't have a policy against preordering anymore.07/03/2015 - 5:16pm
Matthew Wilsonzero escape 3 was announced today.07/03/2015 - 4:21pm
Matthew Wilson@pnx I am guessing a ddoss since that is what happened to neogaf, but sony needs to do a investment in psn as a whole. steam is still the most reliable and fastest digital platform I use.07/03/2015 - 3:06pm
PHX Corphttp://www.vg247.com/2015/07/03/psn-is-down-sony-investigating/ not again: PSN is down, Sony investigating07/03/2015 - 3:04pm
Matthew Wilsonhttp://www.vg247.com/2015/07/03/digital-extremes-trespasser-keystone-pc/ if true, this is funny and embarrassing for Digital Extremes. companies need too have better security.07/03/2015 - 2:57pm
Matthew Wilsonhttp://www.gamespot.com/videos/the-point-destiny-the-hardcore-gamers-slot-machine/2300-6425852/ this is very good, and well researched.07/03/2015 - 12:41pm
InfophileOther features to become standard: The ability to remap controls however the hell I want. Quicksave at any time (especially for handheld and mobile games). Plus everything Andrew said07/03/2015 - 10:43am
InfophileRegion-freeing becomes tricky for games with a strong online component though, especially when the servers are run by different branches in different regions.07/03/2015 - 10:41am
InfophileI'm in favor of getting rid of region-locking for any purchased games. I can understand an exception for free, ad-supported games, as many ads are only relevant in certain regions, and it's a ridiculous hassle to get ads for all regions.07/03/2015 - 10:40am
PHX Corphttp://kotaku.com/payday-2-has-been-broken-on-xbox-one-for-three-weeks-1715384186 Payday 2 Has Been Broken On Xbox One For Three Weeks07/03/2015 - 8:44am
Matthew Wilsonhttps://www.reddit.com/r/OutOfTheLoop/comments/3bxduw/why_was_riama_along_with_a_number_of_other_large/ here is a more complete acount of whats going on.07/03/2015 - 1:32am
Matthew Wilsonredit is on fire right now. most subreddits have been set to private.07/03/2015 - 1:24am
MattsworknameYou know andrew, those are actualy rock solid ideas, I woudl like those features a bunch ,especially with games that a cut scene heavly. looking at you kojima!07/03/2015 - 1:18am
Andrew EisenActually, "things I'd like to see become standard in video games" ain't a bad idea for one of my future YouTube videos.07/03/2015 - 1:05am
 

Be Heard - Contact Your Politician