Respawn's website for Titanfall introduces a new section explaining what happens to players who are flagged as cheaters. According to the information on the site, if you are flagged as a cheater, you will be banned from normal servers and corralled into a special "cheater's only" category that limits your online play to matchmaking with your own kind.
On the question of "what happens" when you get banned, Respawn offers the following answer:
"Great news: you get to keep playing Titanfall!," reads the website. "Less-great news: you only get to play with other cheaters. You can play with other banned players in something that will resemble the Wimbledon of aimbot contests. Hopefully the aimbot cheat you paid for really is the best, or these all-cheater matches could be frustrating for you. Good luck."
Respawn goes on to say that if you get banned, anyone in your party will also be banned: "When anyone in your party is banned, then everyone in your party will be treated as banned for that play session," Respawn notes. "If you are a non-cheater and you invite a cheater friend into a party, you will be stuck playing against cheaters. If you stop inviting your cheater friend, you will once again get to play with the non-cheater population. You do not get permanently tainted just by playing with a cheater – you are only banned for cheating if you are actually cheating."
Finally, if you think you were banned unfairly, Respawn says that you can contact "firstname.lastname@example.org" to make your case.
The anti-cheat measures are active in the game now, so if you do plan on cheating, be prepared to play with like-minded players…
Source: Blue's News